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Aqua (user interface)

Amiga users were able to boot their computer into a command-line interface also known as the CLI or Amiga Shell. This was a keyboard-based environment without the Workbench GUI. This made the Amiga the first multi-media computer years before other OS's. But a CLI was included which dramatically extended the functionality of the platform. It comprises a command-line interface and desktop environment with a windowing system. Originally branded as the Arthur 1.

The Icon bar Dock holds icons which represent mounted disc drives, RAM discs, running applications, system utilities and docked: Files, Directories or inactive Applications. These icons have context-sensitive menus and support drag-and-drop behaviour. They represent the running application as a whole, irrespective of whether it has open windows. The GUI is centred around the concept of files. The Filer displays the contents of a disc. Applications are run from the Filer view and files can be dragged to the Filer view from applications to perform saves. Application directories are used to store applications.

The OS differentiates them from normal directories through the use of a pling exclamation mark, also called shriek prefix. Double-clicking on such a directory launches the application rather than opening the directory. The application's executable files and resources are contained within the directory, but normally they remain hidden from the user. Because applications are self-contained, this allows drag-and-drop installation and removal.

The outline fonts manager provides spatial anti-aliasing of fonts, the OS being the first operating system to include such a feature, [21] [22] [23] [24] having included it since before January Because most of the very early IBM PC and compatibles lacked any common true graphical capability they used the column basic text mode compatible with the original MDA display adapter , a series of file managers arose, including Microsoft 's DOS Shell , which features typical GUI elements as menus, push buttons, lists with scrollbars and mouse pointer.

The name text-based user interface was later invented to name this kind of interface. Advanced file managers for MS-DOS were able to redefine character shapes with EGA and better display adapters, giving some basic low resolution icons and graphical interface elements, including an arrow instead of a coloured cell block for the mouse pointer. When the display adapter lacks the ability to change the character's shapes, they default to the CP character set found in the adapter's ROM. DESQview was a text mode multitasking program introduced in July It was the first program to bring multitasking and windowing capabilities to a DOS environment in which existing DOS programs could be used.

DESQview was not a true GUI but offered certain components of one, such as resizable, overlapping windows and mouse pointing.

One of the best known such graphical applications was Deluxe Paint , a popular painting software with a typical WIMP interface. Windows 1. The GUI has seen minor redesigns since, mainly the networking enabled Windows 3. The bit line of MS Windows were discontinued with the introduction of Windows 95 and Windows NT bit based architecture in the s. See the next section. The main window of a given application can occupy the full screen in maximized status.

When none of the running application windows are maximized, switching can be done by clicking on a partially visible window, as is the common way in other GUIs. The court case lasted 4 years before almost all of Apple's claims were denied on a contractual technicality. Subsequent appeals by Apple were also denied. Microsoft and Apple apparently entered a final, private settlement of the matter in GEOS was launched in Originally written for the 8-bit home computer Commodore 64 and shortly after, the Apple II series.

It came with several application programs like a calendar and word processor, and a cut-down version served as the basis for America Online 's DOS client. Compared to the competing Windows 3. And it was targeted at 8-bit machines and the bit computer age was dawning. The standard windowing system in the Unix world is the X Window System commonly X11 or X , first released in the mids.

Its original purpose was to allow users of the newly emerging graphic terminals to access remote graphics workstations without regard to the workstation's operating system or the hardware. X allows a graphical terminal user to make use of remote resources on the network as if they were all located locally to the user by running a single module of software called the X server. The software running on the remote machine is called the client application.

X's network transparency protocols allow the display and input portions of any application to be separated from the remainder of the application and 'served up' to any of a large number of remote users. X is available today as free software. Although NeWS was considered technically elegant by some commentators, Sun eventually dropped the product. Unlike X, NeWS was always proprietary software.

Windows 10 vs macOS Sierra – User Interface

The widespread adoption of the PC platform in homes and small businesses popularized computers among people with no formal training. This created a fast-growing market, opening an opportunity for commercial exploitation and of easy-to-use interfaces and making economically viable the incremental refinement of the existing GUIs for home systems. Also, the spreading of Highcolor and True Color capabilities of display adapters providing thousands and millions of colors , along with faster CPUs and accelerated graphic cards, cheaper RAM , storage devices orders of magnitude larger from megabytes to gigabytes and larger bandwidth for telecom networking at lower cost helped to create an environment in which the common user was able to run complicated GUIs which began to favor aesthetics.

After Windows 3. It also featured a significant redesign of the GUI, dubbed "Cairo". While Cairo never really materialized, parts of Cairo found their way into subsequent versions of the operating system starting with Windows Windows 95 was touted as a bit based operating system but it was actually based on a hybrid kernel VWIN EXE of Windows for Workgroups 3. DLL that allowed it to run native bit applications as well as bit applications.

In the marketplace, Windows 95 was an unqualified success, promoting a general upgrade to bit technology, and within a year or two of its release had become the most successful operating system ever produced. Accompanied by an extensive marketing campaign , [29] Windows 95 was a major success in the marketplace at launch and shortly became the most popular desktop operating system. Windows 95 saw the beginning of the browser wars , when the World Wide Web began receiving a great deal of attention in popular culture and mass media.

Microsoft at first did not see potential in the Web, and Windows 95 was shipped with Microsoft's own online service called The Microsoft Network , which was dial-up only and was used primarily for its own content, not internet access. As versions of Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer were released at a rapid pace over the following few years, Microsoft used its desktop dominance to push its browser and shape the ecology of the web mainly as a monoculture. Windows 95 evolved through the years into Windows 98 and Windows ME.

Windows ME was the last in the line of the Windows 3. Windows underwent a parallel bit evolutionary path, where Windows NT 3.

University of Helsinki – orientation (2 sp)

Windows NT for New Technology [31] was a native bit operating system with a new driver model, was unicode-based, and provided for true separation between applications. Windows 95 was supposed to be released before as the predecessor to Windows NT. The idea was to promote the development of bit applications with backward compatibility — leading the way for more successful NT release. After multiple delays, Windows 95 was released without unicode and used the VxD driver model.

The role of operating system in the computer

Windows NT 3. Windows XP and higher were also made available in bit modes. Windows server products branched off with the introduction of Windows Server available in bit and bit IA64 or x64 , then Windows Server and then Windows Server R2. With Windows 98, the Active Desktop theme was introduced, allowing an HTML approach for the desktop, but this feature was coldly received by customers, who frequently disabled it. At the end, Windows Vista definitively discontinued it, but put a new SideBar on the desktop. It seems to originate in the top center, but some elements on the desktop, such as topmost windows, cast a shadow as though the light source were in its traditional, upper-left position.

The centered position appears unusual and disturbing, as all menus have to be arranged around it. It's position restricts the consistency of left-aligning all Apple-Menus. Instead, all documents are represented in a filing system at the bottom of the screen called the "dock". The finder was a useful tool which provided a spatial orientation for the user, enabling navigation through any amount of files and folders. As a compensation it is now possible to navigate through lists of file-structures in the so-called finder-browser, another familiar tool for MS Windows users. Indeed the multi-windows mode could cause screen-clatter for the user, but it was always possible to find a way around this problem.

Instead of improving this, Apple now decided to allow only one open window at a time. A very radical solution to the problem. The Dock. Dock The Dock is always centered along the bottom of the screen and can accept any window or document.


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As the Dock grows full, individual "tiles" shrink. A user option called the "genie mode" magnifies tiles as the cursor moves over them.

History of the graphical user interface - Wikipedia

The Dock represents another equivalent to the Microsoft world: It displays a resized version of any open document, and also contains the trash-can. In addition to servers, Linux is widely used in home computers, since there are a great number of free programs for it for text and image processing, spreadsheets, publishing, etc. Over the years, many different versions of Linux have become available for distribution, most of which are free for the user such as Ubuntu, Fedora and Mint, to name a few.

See the additional reading material for more information on Linux. Most of the programs that are available for PCs are also available for Macs running under OS X, but these two types of computers cannot use the exact same programs: You can install other operating systems on Mac computers, but the OS X is only available for computers made by Apple. See the additional reading material for more information on OS X. Android is an operating system designed for phones and other mobile devices. Android is not available for desktop computers, but in mobile devices it is extremely popular: A user interface UI refers to the part of an operating system, program, or device that allows a user to enter and receive information.

A text-based user interface see the image to the left displays text, and its commands are usually typed on a command line using a keyboard.

Operating system and user interface

With a graphical user interface see the right-hand image , the functions are carried out by clicking or moving buttons, icons and menus by means of a pointing device. Larger image: The images contain the same information: You can often carry out the same tasks regardless of which kind of UI you are using. Modern graphical user interfaces have evolved from text-based UIs.